K.K.K.

Formation of KKK

The Katipunan or KKK (Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan) was founded on July 7, 1892 after Jose Rizal was exiled to Dapitan, in Mindanao. The Katipunan was a secret brotherhood organization led by Andres Bonifacio and other members Teodoro Plata (brother-in-law), Ladislao Diwa, Valentin Diaz, and Deodato Arellano. It was founded at 314 Calle Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto Avenue) near Elcano St. in Tondo,Manila.

Goal/Aims

- To develop a strong alliance with each and every Katipunero.

- To unite Filipinos into one solid nation.

- To win Philippine independence by means of an armed conflict (or revolution).

- To establish a republic after independence.

They strongly believed that these goals/aims can be achieved only through armed or bloody revolution.

 Membership

It wasn’t that easy to join as a member of the Katipunan. Those people who attempted to join the organization knew the other members of the Katipunan that’s why they knew that the organization existed. And they also used the triangle system or sistemang tatsulok to remain the secrecy of the group. If a person wished to join the Katipunan, he will definitely undergo the initiation. The person will be blindfolded until they arrived to a dark room where the initiation takes place. Then, they will be asked 3 questions which the answer should be favorable to the Katipuneros.

Question #1: Ano ang kalagayan ng bansa noong sinaunang panahon?

Answer:  Bago dumating ang mga Espanyol, matiwasay ang pamumuhay ng mga mamamayan, maayos ang kalakalan at may sapat na yaman at ari-arian na tangan ang bawat isa.

Question #2:  Ano naman ang kalagayan nito ngayon?

Answer:  (Kailangang isagot dito ang di mabilang na pang-aabuso at di makatarungang pamamahala ng mga Espanyol sa Pilipinas.)

Question #3:  Ano ang magiging kalagayan nito sa hinaharap?

Answer:  (Kailangang isagot dito na isang maliwanag na kinabukasan ang naghihintay sa mamamayan kung sila’y magsasasama-sama at magtutulungan upang tuldukan na ang kasamaan ng Espanya.)

After passing the first step of the initiation, the neophyte will now go through the second step which is a lecture given by the master of ceremonies, called Mabalasig/Mabalasik (terrible brother), informing the recruit member to withdraw if he lacks the courage and if the newbie will still pursue he will now then go to the 3rd step of the initiation where he will be asked to do some ordeals such as making him shoot a supposedly a revolver at a person, or forcing him to jump a supposedly hot flame. After passing the ordeal, is the last step of the initiation which is the pacto de sangre or blood compact–in which the neophyte signed the oath with blood taken from his arm. He was then accepted as a full-pledged member, with a symbolic name by which he was known within Katipunan circles. Bonifacio’s symbolic name was Maypagasa; Jacinto was Pingkian; Emilio Aguinaldo was Magdalo and Artemio Ricarte was Vibora.

Administration

There were 3 levels of the organization and a council called, Kataastaasang Sanggunian (Supreme Council).

1. Katipon (Associate)

These were the first degree members who wore a black hood with a triangle of white ribbon having the letters “Z. Ll. B.”, corresponding to the roman “A. N. B.”, meaning Anak ng̃ Bayan (Son of the People) which served also as their password or secret code.

2. Kawal (soldier)

They were the second degree members who wore a green hood with a triangle having white lines and the letters “Z. LL. B.” at the three angles of the triangle, and also wore a green ribbon with a medal with the letter  (ka) in Baybayin script above a depiction of a crossed sword and flag. Their password was Gomburza taken from the name of the 3 martyrs: Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora.

3. Bayani (Hero or Patriot)

Bayani were third degree members. They wore a red mask and a sash with green borders, symbolizing courage and hope. The front of the mask had white borders that formed a triangle with three Ks arranged as if occupying the angles of a triangle within a triangle, and with the letters “Z. Ll. B.” below and their password was Rizal.

A member meeting another member placed the palm of his right hand on his breast and, as he passed the other member, he closed the hands to bring the right index finger and thumb together.

A Katipon member can be promoted as a Kawal by recruiting new members to the organization. A Kawal can advance as a Bayani if he will be elected as an officer.

Kataastaasang Sanggunian (Supreme Council)

The officers were elected by means of voting.

Supreme Council 1892

President: Deodato Arellano

Comptroller: Andres Bonifacio

Fiscal: Ladislao Diwa

Secretary: Teodoro Plata

Treasurer: Valentin Díaz

Supreme Council 1893

President: Ramón Basa

Fiscal: Andres Bonifacio

Secretary: José Turiano Santiago

Treasurer:  Vicente Molina

Councilors: Gonzales, Plata, and Diwa

Discovery

On July 5, 1896, Manuél Sityar, a Spanish lieutenant of the guardia civíl stationed at Pasig, sent a letter to Governor-General Ramón Blanco y Erenas, informing the secret organization that was formed and recruiting other members to join the organization by signing an agreement with their own blood and collecting some money. Teodoro Patiño revealed the secrets of the society to his sister, Honoria Patiño, an inmate nun at the Mandaluyong Orphanage just for the reason of misunderstanding about the wages between him and his co-worker on the printing press,Apolonio de la Cruz. Both of them were members of the Katipunan and at the same time workers for Diario de Manila. Honoria was very upset when she found out about the secret organization. She was crying when Sor Teresa de Jesus (mother portress of the Orphanage)and she told everything to her. Sor Teresa called Teodoro Patiño and advised him to tell everything he knew about the Katipunan through confession to Father Mariano Gíl.After hearing his confessions, Father Mariano Gíl immedaitely went to the Diario de Manila and saw the evidence like the receipts, documents of the membership, and daggers.

 

 

References:

Katipunan. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katipunan

CRUZ, H. (n.d.). Kartilyang makabayan. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14822/14822-h/14822-h.htm